Trajectories and functions of Catalan nationalism since the 19th century
This article attempts to outline, in a brief summary, the outstanding features of the longue dur trajectories of the movements, concepts, alliances and politics of Catalan nationalism and their functions for Catalan and Spanish politics through the last century-and-a-half. It tries to characterise the basic lines of the social background, the interests, programme and ideology of the Catalan nationalists, and to look into their achievements and limitations, their internal cleavages and divisions, and their (possible or impossible) alliances with Spanish political forces, and with one another. Particular attention is given to processes of change and to the respective thresholds involved, but also to a significant number of continuities through the various stages of Catalanism and Catalan nationalism from its beginning to the present. Among the continuities can be found divided actors (and rivalries), the long dominance of party politics and pacts (pactisme), and the insistence on self-determination. The most important changes are reflected in an overall movement, over time, from regionalism to autonomism to separatism, usually mixed with characteristic elements of federalism, and notwithstanding the existence of overlapping, parallel and hybrid strategies. The article finishes with an outlook to the threats and models for the 21st century.
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